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Ten Women Who Changed Science, and the World

By Catherine Whitlock, Rhodri Evans
Authors:
Catherine Whitlock, Rhodri Evans
With a foreword by Athene Donald, Professor of Experimental Physics, University of Cambridge and Master of Churchill College.Ten Women Who Changed Science tells the moving stories of the physicists, biologists, chemists, astronomers and doctors who helped to shape our world with their extraordinary breakthroughs and inventions, and outlines their remarkable achievements.These scientists overcame significant obstacles, often simply because they were women their science and their lives were driven by personal tragedies and shaped by seismic world events. What drove these remarkable women to cure previously incurable diseases, disprove existing theories or discover new sources of energy? Some were rewarded with the Nobel Prize for their pioneering achievements - Madame Curie, twice - others were not and, even if they had, many are not household names.Despite living during periods when the contribution of women was disregarded, if not ignored, these resilient women persevered with their research, whether creating life-saving drugs or expanding our knowledge of the cosmos. By daring to ask 'How?' and 'Why?' and persevering against the odds, each of these women, in a variety of ways, has made the world a better place.AstronomyHenrietta Leavitt (United States of America) (1868-1921) - discovered the period-luminosity relation(ship) for Cepheid variable stars, which enabled us to measure the size of our Galaxy and the Universe.PhysicsLise Meitner (Austria) (1878-1968) - fled Nazi Germany in 1938, taking with her the experimental results which showed that she and Otto Hahn had split the nucleus and discovered nuclear fission. Chien-Shiung Wu (United States of America) (1912-1997) - Chinese-American who disproved one of the most accepted 'laws of nature', that not all processes can be mirrored. She showed that the 'law of parity', the idea that a left-spinning and right-spinning sub-atomic particle would behave identically, was wrong.ChemistryMarie Curie (France) (1867-1934) - the only person in history to have won Nobel prizes in two different fields of science. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (United Kingdom) (1910-1994) - British chemist who won the Nobel prize for Chemistry in 1964. Among the most prominent of a generation of great protein crystallographers. The field was revolutionized under her. She pioneered the X-ray study of large molecules of biochemical importance: the structures of cholesterol, penicillin, vitamin B12 and insulin, leading to DNA structure analysis by Franklin etc.MedicineVirginia Apgar (United States of America) (1909-1974) - of Apgar Score fame.Gertrude Elion (United States of America) (1918-1999) - won the Nobel Prize for Physiology/Medicine in 1988 for developing some important principles for drug development.BiologyRita Levi-Montalicini (Italy) (1909-2012) - the so-called 'Lady of the Cells'. She won the Nobel Prize for Physiology/Medicine in 1986 for her co-discovery in 1954 of NGF (nerve growth factor).Elsie Widdowson (United Kingdom) (1906-2000) - a pioneer of the science of nutrition who was instrumental in devising the WW2 diet, in part through self-experimentation.Rachel Carson (United States of America) (1907-1964) - marine biologist and author of Silent Spring who is credited with having advanced the environmental movement.
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Talk

By Elizabeth Stokoe
Authors:
Elizabeth Stokoe
We spend much of our days talking. Yet we know little about the conversational engine that drives our everyday lives. We are pushed and pulled around by language far more than we realize, yet are seduced by stereotypes and myths about communication.This book will change the way you think about talk. It will explain the big pay-offs to understanding conversation scientifically. Elizabeth Stokoe, a social psychologist, has spent over twenty years collecting and analysing real conversations across settings as varied as first dates, crisis negotiation, sales encounters and medical communication. This book describes some of the findings of her own research, and that of other conversation analysts around the world. Through numerous examples from real interactions between friends, partners, colleagues, police officers, mediators, doctors and many others, you will learn that some of what you think you know about talk is wrong. But you will also uncover fresh insights about how to have better conversations - using the evidence from fifty years of research about the science of talk.
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Tell Me What You Want

By Justin J. Lehmiller
Authors:
Justin J. Lehmiller
'Reading [Tell Me What You Want] may be the best thing you ever do for your sex life, your relationships and your self-acceptance' - Geoffrey Miller, author of The Mating Mind, Spent, and MateWhat do we really want when it comes to sex? How can we break the barriers that prevent us from communicating about our desires? Justin J. Lehmiller, a leading expert on human sexuality and author of the popular blog Sex and Psychology, has made it his career's ambition to answer these questions. Based on his monumental two-year study of sexual fantasies involving more than 4,000 people from all walks of life, Tell Me What You Want offers an unprecedented look into our fantasy worlds and what they reveal about us. It will help you to understand your own sexual desires and how to attain them within your relationships, but also to appreciate why your partner may have sexual proclivities that are so different from your own. Appreciating the incredible diversity of human sexual desire and why this diversity exists in the first place can help you to overcome distress, anxiety and shame about your own sexual fantasies; ultimately enhancing your sex life. Breaking down barriers to discussing sexual fantasies and allowing them to become a part your sexual reality is the pathway to maintaining more satisfying relationships.
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Theodore Gray's Completely Mad Science

By Theodore Gray
Authors:
Theodore Gray
Bestselling author Theodore Gray has spent more than a decade dreaming up, executing, photographing, and writing about extreme scientific experiments, which he then published between 2009 and 2014 in his monthly Popular Science column "Gray Matter." Previously published in book form by Black Dog in two separate volumes (Mad Science and Mad Science 2), these experiments, plus 5 more all-new ones, will now be combined in one complete book.Packaged in a smaller, chunkier format Completely Mad Science is 432 pages of dazzling chemical demonstrations, illustrated in spectacular full-color photographs. Some of the completely mad experiments in the book include: Casting a model fish out of mercury (demonstrating how this element behaves very differently depending upon temperature); the famous Flaming Bacon Lance that can cut through steel (demonstrating the amount of energy contained in fatty foods like bacon); creating nylon thread out of pure liquid by combining molecules of hexamethylenediamine and sebacoyl chloride; making homemade ice cream using a fire extinguisher and a pillow case; powering your iPhone using 150 pennies and an apple, and many, many more. It's the ultimate collection for Gray's millions of fans.
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Ten Physicists who Transformed our Understanding of Reality

By Rhodri Evans, Brian Clegg
Authors:
Rhodri Evans, Brian Clegg
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They Laughed at Galileo

By Albert Jack
Authors:
Albert Jack
From the wireless to the computer, and from hula hoops to interplanetary travel, inventions and discoveries have changed our lifestyles in ways that would have astounded our ancestors. Each of them was originally developed by visionaries who dreamt of the seemingly impossible, but who were opposed by an array of experts publicly declaring that 'It cannot be done.' Well, yes it could . . . And here's the story of how those dreamers overcame the odds against them.
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  • Tea By The Nursery Fire

    By Noel Streatfeild
    Authors:
    Noel Streatfeild
    Emily Huckwell spent almost her entire life working for one family. Born in a tiny Sussex village in the 1870s, she went into domestic service in the Burton household before she was twelve, earning £5 a year. She began as a nursery maid, progressing to under nurse and then head nanny, looking after two generations of children. One of the children in her care was the father of Noel Streatfeild, the author of Ballet Shoes and one of the best-loved children's writers of the 20th century. Basing her story on fact and family legend, Noel Streatfeild here tells Emily's story, and with her characteristic warmth and intimacy creates a fascinating portrait of Victorian and Edwardian life above and below stairs.
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    A Tug On The Thread

    By Diana Quick
    Authors:
    Diana Quick
    Be sure you marry a pure-blooded Englishman.' The memory of this inexplicable command to nine-year-old Diana Quick by her terminally ill grandfather was to remain buried for years. It wasn't until she played Julia Flyte in the celebrated Granada TV dramatisation of Brideshead Revisited that it resurfaced, setting her on a quest to uncover the hidden enigma of her father's family in India. Gradually Diana unpeeled the layers of family secrets that revealed changed names, the stigma of being 'country born', her grandfather's obsessive ambition for his son. This knowledge helped her both to understand her own heritage and to interpret the roles she played on stage and screen. It also gave her pride in her family's history: the bravery of her great-grandmother who, as a child, narrowly escaped being murdered during the 1857 Indian Mutiny; her father's struggles as a penniless student in a foreign country.
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    To Cherish the Life of the World

    By Margaret Caffrey, Patricia Francis
    Authors:
    Margaret Caffrey, Patricia Francis
    Often far from home and loved ones, famed anthropologist Margaret Mead was a prolific letterwriter, always honing her writing skills and her ideas. To Cherish the Life of the World presents, for the first time, her personal and professional correspondence, which spanned sixty years. These letters lend insights into Mead's relationships with interconnected circles of family, friends, and colleagues, and reveal her thoughts on the nature of these relationships. In these letters- drawn primarily from her papers at the Library of Congress- Mead ruminates on family, friendships, sexuality, marriage, children, and career. In midlife, at a low point, she wrote to a friend, "What I seem to need most is close, aware human relationships, which somehow reinstate my sense of myself, as no longer living'in the season of the narrow heart." This collection is structured around these relationships, which were so integral to Mead's perspective on life. With a foreword by her daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson, a renowned author and anthropologist in her own right, this volume of letters from Mead to those who shared her life and work offers new insight into a rich and deeply complex mind.

    Taking Liberties

    By Aryeh Neier
    Authors:
    Aryeh Neier
    Since joining the staff of the American Civil Liberties Union in 1963 and becoming its youngest executive director, Aryeh Neier has been at the forefront of efforts to fight for civil liberties, human rights, and social justice. Whether he was confronting police abuse, defending draft opponents or defending free speech, as he did at the ACLU out-maneuvering the Reagan administration over military abuses in El Salvador, promoting accountability for political crimes in Argentina and Chile or supporting dissidents in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, as he did at Human Rights Watch or trying to eradicate landmines, promote stability in the Balkans or establish an International Criminal Court, as he has at the Open Society Institute Aryeh Neier has been methodical, relentless, and unusually successful. In this look back at an amazing career, Neier both reflects on the unintended consequences of some of his victories and why, if he had anticipated them, he might have done things differently and reveals that some of the various movements of which he was a part had their greatest triumphs under the most adverse circumstances.

    True Vine

    By John W. Fountain
    Authors:
    John W. Fountain
    John W. Fountain grew up on some of the meanest streets in Chicago, where drugs, crime, decay, and broken homes consigned so many black children to a life of despair and self-destruction. A father at seventeen, a college dropout at nineteen, a welfare case soon after, Fountain was on the verge of giving up all hope. One thing saved him,his faith, his own true vine. True Vine is John Fountain's remarkable story,of his childhood in a neighbourhood heading south of his strong-willed grandparents, who founded a church (called True Vine) that sought to bring the word of God to their neighbours of his mother, herself a teenage parent, whose truncated dreams help nurture bigger dreams in him of his friends and cousins, whose youthful exuberance was extinguished by the burdens they faced and of his religious awakening that gave him the determination to rebuild his life. Today John Fountain is an award-winning reporter for The New York Times , based in his hometown. His return to Chicago marks how his story has come full circle, this time in triumph. True Vine is an inspiring, moving, gripping story of one man's American dream,a dream that all of us can share.

    Trial and Error

    By John C. Tucker
    Authors:
    John C. Tucker
    Trial and Error offers an unexpurgated examination of the past half-century of American jurisprudence through the life of one of America's most celebrated and accomplished lawyers. Here is John C. Tucker, a man who twice argued before the Supreme Court and won, challenged the nefarious and discriminatory practice of "contract lending" and lost, participated in such monumental cases as the Chicago Eight trial following the calamitous 1968 Democratic Convention,and retired at age fifty-one, securely established as one of the most respected jurists of his generation. In Trial and Error, he describes with poise and wit his encounters with as varied a cast of characters as Muhammad Ali, Abbie Hoffman, and Chief Justice Earl Warren, while chronicling the remarkable successes, and sobering disappointments, of his distinguished career. This is an honest and uncompromising analysis of the events that have shaped our court system, and the inspiring story of a man for principle in an increasingly unprincipled age for the legal profession.

    Taking Life to Extremes

    By Kenneth Kamler
    Authors:
    Kenneth Kamler
    '"If the chanting stops, he will die. My patient will die." I was certain of this-as certain as someone crouching in an unheated tent sitting on the highest mountain in the world can feel about anything.'Dr Ken Kamler knows what happens when bodies are pushed to their limits. He has been to and studied the world's most inhospitable regions, and seen who survived and who did not. This book leads readers into six different and extreme environments: underwater, water surface, jungle, desert, high altitude and outer space. Telling the stories of his own and others' extraordinary brushes with death, Kamler explores the body's reactions to heat, cold, pressure, starvation, exhaustion and exposure, and reveals its miraculous survival strategies.

    Tell Me A Story

    By Don Hewitt
    Authors:
    Don Hewitt
    In more than a half century with CBS News, Don Hewitt has been responsible for many of the greatest moments in television history, including the first broadcasts of political conventions in 1948 the first Kennedy-Nixon debate in 1960 and, most spectacularly, for the past 34 years, 60 Minutes , for which he has been the creator, executive producer, and driving force of the news program that has redefined television journalism. In Tell Me a Story , Hewitt presents his own remarkable life story in his own words, from his time as a reporter for Stars & Stripes during the Second World War, to the heady exhilaration of the early days of television, to the triumphs and controversies of 60 Minutes . Hewitt has been at the centre of events, covering some of the leading cultural and political figures of our century, and working with an All-Star roster of journalists. Hewitt also speaks bluntly, with affection and humour, about the promise and the shortcomings of television news, and offers surprising perspectives on its continued power and potential as we move into a new media environment. The key to his success, as Hewitt is fond of saying, is "I may not know a lot, but I think I know how to tell a story." Never has his storytelling talent been on better display than in the pages of this extraordinary book.

    Three Roads To Quantum Gravity

    By Lee Smolin
    Authors:
    Lee Smolin
    The Holy Grail of modern physics is a theory of the universe that unites two seemingly opposing pillars of modern science: Einstein's theory of general relativity, which deals with large-scale phenomena (planets, solar systems and galaxies), and quantum theory, which deals with the world of the very small (molecules, atoms, electrons). In Three Roads to Quantum Gravity, Lee Smolin provides the first concise and accessible overview of current attempts to reconcile these two theories in a final "theory of everything." This is the closest anyone has ever come to devising a completely new theory of space, time and the universe to replace the Newtonian ideas that were the foundation of all science until the beginning of the twentieth century. Lee Smolin, who has spent his career at the forefront of these new discoveries, presents for the first time the main ideas behind the new developments that have brought a quantum theory of gravity in sight. He explains in simple terms what scientists are talking about when they say the world is made from exotic entities such as loops, strings, and black holes. As he does so, he tells the fascinating stories behind these discoveries: the rivalries, epiphanies, and intrigues he witnessed firsthand.Science Masters Series

    Tales From The Underground

    By David Wolfe
    Authors:
    David Wolfe
    There are over one billion organisms in a pinch of soil, and many of them perform functions essential to all life on the planet. Yet we know much more about deep space than about the universe below. In Tales from the Underground, Cornell ecologist David W. Wolfe lifts the veil on this hidden world, revealing for the first time what makes subterranean life so unique and so precious. Home to miniscule water bears and microscopic bacteria, mole rats and burrowing owls, the underground reigns supreme as it produces important pharmaceuticals, recycles life's essential elements, and helps plants gather nutrients. An original, awe-inspiring journey through a strange realm, Tales from the Underground will forever alter our appreciation of the natural world around-and beneath-us.

    The Trembling Mountain

    By Robert Klitzman
    Authors:
    Robert Klitzman
    Kuru, like Mad Cow disease, is caused by a rare, infectious crystal protein that invades and colonizes human cells, destroying the nervous system of its victims. There is no known cure. It flourished in one of the remotest places on earth, Papua New Guinea, among the Fore, a people living in the Stone Age, who until recently practiced ritual cannibalism, consuming the brains of their forebears during funerary feasts. Robert Klitzman helped establish the links between these rituals and kuru. What he discovered has provided keys to understanding the mysterious Mad Cow Disease, which may become the world's next major epidemic. Robert Klitzman was 21 years old when he was invited by the Nobel Prize-winning scientist Dr. Carleton Gajdusek, then at the National Institutes of Health, to conduct original research on kuru. Seizing the chance to travel to the other end of the world, Klitzman embarked on an adventure that would change his life.

    Turn Right At Orion

    By Mitchell Begelman
    Authors:
    Mitchell Begelman
    Turn Right at Orion is the account of an epic astronomical journey, discovered sixty million years in Earth's future-the product of one man's amazing, revelatory, and occasionally perilous space odyssey. Astrophysicist Mitchell Begelman takes the reader to far distant shores, across a vast ocean of time, in a narrative style that zips along at just below light speed. We travel to the centre of the Milky Way, witness the births and deaths of stars and of planets, and almost perish in the crushing forces at the perimeter of a black hole-and all the while Begelman explains in clear and vibrant prose how things work the way they do in the cosmos. Turn Right at Orion is a serious science book that reads like fiction.

    Travels To The Nanoworld

    By Michael Gross
    Authors:
    Michael Gross
    Our lives are about to be changed by new technologies that operate on a scale too small to be seen by even the most powerful optical microscopes. Devices measured in nanometers-billionths of a meter-have set off a nanotechnology revolution. In Travels to the Nanoworld , Michael Gross takes us deep into this miniature universe and describes natural processes and new technologies that will make modern machines look like relics from the Stone Age. Starting with the model of the living cell, whose vital processes are directed and carried out by structures with dimensions on the nanometer scale, Gross shows how biochemists are beginning to understand the mechanisms of the "nanotechnology of nature." Soon science will have the knowledge and technology to generate artificial systems that will perform similar tasks, and through them will find new treatments for disease, substitutes for toxic waste, and alternatives to carbon fuel.

    Traces Of The Past

    By Joseph B. Lambert
    Authors:
    Joseph B. Lambert
    Where Stonehenge's giant bluestones come from? Was the fall of the Roman Empire hastened by lead poisoning? How did amber get from the Baltic to Belize? In exploring these and other historical enigmas, Joseph Lambert expertly details the rich insights into ancient life that chemistry alone can provide.Using cutting-edge scientific methods such as radiocarbon dating, DNA analysis, and elemental fingerprinting, acclaimed chemist Joseph Lambert expertly details the rich insights into ancient life that chemistry alone can provide. He shows, for example, how investigators today can determine the diet of prehistoric Europeans, the geographical origin of the marble in a Greek statue, or the reason why the Liberty Bell cracked. He uses nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to reconstruct ancient trade routes, and X-ray diffraction, among other methods, to compare the colour palettes of the Mesopotamians and Egyptians (the latter were apparently much more flamboyant). He explains how chemical analysis of DNA can be used to sort out human lineages and migratory patterns,demographic trends that affected, in turn, everything from language to the spread of disease.Chemistry takes centre stage in this fascinating book, proving that it is not just an analyst of culture, it stands as one of its primary creators. Lambert offers us a unique glimpse into a form of technical progress hitherto unappreciated: the ever-increasing ingenuity of the Human race, as seen through the prism of its evolving chemical sophistication. We discover how primitive chemistry was initially used by ancient people as a tool to improve their daily lives, a feat that was achieved by reworking molecules of clay into pottery and minerals into metal alloys, and by turning grains into beer and pitch into sealants.By documenting the way ancient people manipulated their environment chemically, Lambert further refines the distinguishing feature of our species. Early humans were more than tool-makers. They were molecular transformers.